Whole books could be written about this subject. As we all know, functional problems anywhere in the body can lead to muscle tension, which can then spread to the shoulder girdle and cause pain. The frequent stress in our everyday life, the lack of healthy exercise, abnormal postures due to badly designed workplaces or just bad posture at work can all be contributory factors. Computer work is a particular culprit. Many structures in modern society take very little account of our musculoskeletal system and place increasing demands on our heads, hands, buttocks and "pedal feet".
We have to take responsibility for looking after our central skeleton, spine and the other limb joints ourselves. Modern humans do this with sport, but unfortunately all too often in one-sided sports or else sport that is carried to excess. Poor spinal posture is not only common nowadays, it is even regarded as normal. The results include problems with the cervical spine involving damage to the intervertebral discs and the cervical nerves that supply the shoulders, arms and hands. Consequently, shoulder surgeons are not infrequently faced with shoulder problems linked to problems in the cervical spine: pain radiating to the fingers, tension affecting the whole neck, shoulder and arm muscles. The therapeutic approach to such symptoms is difficult, requiring care and, usually, effective and long-term cooperation between the doctor, patient and physiotherapist. Surgery represents only one part of the therapeutic spectrum and should be resorted to only when all other measures have failed.