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Instability of the shoulder or shoulder girdle
Constitutionally-related shoulder instability

Young people, particularly girls, can have highly mobile joints. In negative scenarios, this can lead to chronic shoulder instability as a result of pronounced ligament laxity (with habitual shoulder dislocations). These young people also tend to show "excessive" mobility in other joints, including the elbow, knee, wrist or finger joints. Surgical correction of the instability is only a last resort in these cases. Efforts must primarily focus on strengthening the dynamic stabilisers of the joints by intensive physiotherapy. Sufficient joint stability can usually be restored by generally strengthening the shoulder girdle muscles, thus avoiding the need for surgery. Nevertheless, if surgical correction is required, the capsular ligament structures have to be strengthened and doubled during the procedure. The long-term outcomes are less favourable, however, than after a reconstruction for "normal" post-traumatic shoulder instability.